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  • Thema von BalticLegal im Forum Dies ist ein Forum in...

    According to Latvian Immigration Law, a foreigner has the right to request a temporary residence permit in accordance for the time period of studies of educational establishments accredited in the Republic of Latvia or full-time students.

    Under Latvian Immigration Law, a residence permit gives a foreigner the right to reside in the Republic of Latvia for a specified time period, for example, students may reside in Latvia for the time period of studies.

    Visa certifies that a person has requested an authorisation to enter and reside in the Republic of Latvia or in any Schengen Agreement Member State for the period of time indicated in visa and for the number of times indicated therein.

    Practically, in the case of studying abroad, a student arriving from third countries (residing outside Schengen Area) a residence permit is more suitable instead of student visa.

    In order to receive a residence permit in the Republic of Latvia in connection with studies at an accredited higher educational establishment or participation in studies programme you shall present at embassy of Republic of Latvia a valid travel document admitted in the Republic of Latvia (passport) and submit the following documents:

    filled application for a residence permit request;
    a photography;
    a statement on punishability issued by a competent institution of the citizenship or the host country, if a foreigner has resided in that country longer than 12 months
    a document confirming the necessary subsistence - EUR 285 per month (12x 285EUR = 3415 EUR a year). In this regard you should present a statement from bank indicating that you own at least 3415 EUR;
    a document confirming the envisaged place of residence in the Republic of Latvia and the rights to stay there;
    a document confirming state duty payment;
    an agreement on studies in the Republic of Latvia;
    Documents confirming that you have acquired the necessary education to start the studies.
    Before the submission of the documents your inviter shall approve the call at the Office of Citizenship and Migration Affairs Foreigners Service Centre or at a territorial office. Probably the invitation would be granted by the particular educational institution concerned. The Inviter shall require the invitation at Migration Office in Latvia and afterwards the invitation shall be sent to the embassy by post. Invitation is mandatory document in the process of obtaining visa.

  • Thema von BalticLegal im Forum Dies ist ein Forum in...

    Area: 64,589 sq.km or 24,937 sq.miles.
    Regions: Kurzeme, Zemgale, Vidzeme, Latgale.
    Total national border length: 1,862 km.
    Length of Latvia's Baltic coastline: 494 km.
    Population: 2,272,300
    Borders with:Estonia, Russia, Belarus, and Lithuania.

    Short history of Latvia
    The Republic of Latvia was founded on 18 November 1918 (18 November is a national holiday and the day of proclamation of Latvia's independence). Following the end of the fight for freedom in 1920, several countries recognised Latvia's independence de jure, and 16 foreign missions were established in Riga. Latvia lost its independence in 1940 after the beginning of the World War II. It was first occupied by the Soviet Union (from 1940 to 1941). Then the occupation by Nazi Germany (from 1941 to 1945) followed. However, the Soviet Union regained the power and occupied Latvia again (from 1945 to 1991). As a result of Gorbachev's reforms, on 21 August 1991 Latvia declared restoration of its independence de facto. It restored the international diplomatic relations and joined the United Nations (UN).

    The name Latvia originates from the ancient Latgalians which was one of the four Indo-European tribes that together with Semigallians, Couronians and Selonians was involved in the ethnogenesis of Latvians.

    Flag of Latvia
    The flag of Latvia with three horizontal stripes the colours of which are maroon and white is one of the oldest flags in the world dating back to the events in the town of Cēsis in the 13th century. According to the legend a fatally wounded military leader together with its sword was wrapped in a white sheet and the blood stained both edges of the sheet. After the leader's death this sheet was used as a flag in the next battle which led Latvians to a victory. The design of Latvia's flag is officially adopted and provided for under the Constitution of Latvia – Satversme.

    Geography of Latvia and neighbouring countries
    Latvia is the central country of the Baltic States and is situated in the Northeastern Europe. Latvia's territory the terrain of which formed in the ice age consists of rich lowlands in the plains and moderate hills. The most of it is lower than 100 metres below sea level. Latvia has a vast network of rivers and lakes consisting of more than twelve thousand rivers and approximately two thousand lakes. There are pine forests, dunes and white-sand beaches all over Latvia. The sea along Latvia's coastline is very shallow, and the Gulf of Riga is no deeper than 26 metres. The highest mountain in Latvia is Gaiziņkalns (312 m). The neighbour countries of Latvia are Estonia, Latvia, Russia and Belarus, and the strategic location of Latvia facilitates the development of trade and culture.

    Climate of Latvia
    Latvia lies in the temperate climate zone, and its climate is affected by the proximity of the sea and air masses from the Atlantic Ocean. Latvia has four distinctive seasons. Summers are mild, but winters – moderately cold; the humidity level is relatively high, and there is frequent rainfall. The average temperature in summer is 15.8°C and in winter – -4.5°C. Temperature records have been accordingly 36.4°C and -43.2°C. Latvia's weather is marked by frequent change of air masses due to 170 fronts crossing the territory in February, July and October. These fronts are accompanied by strong winds which are responsible for the maximum occurrences of snowstorms in February, for the high level of rainfall and thunderstorms in July and for the strong winds, even storms, in October.

    Nature of Latvia
    With more than 44 % of its territory covered by forests and the vast network of rivers and thousands of lakes, Latvia is one of the best preserved sanctuaries for various wild animals. More than 27,000 of flora and fauna species live under natural conditions in territories that are still relatively untouched by humans. Many rare species, for example, black storks and lesser spotted eagles live in their habitats which are mixed forests, swamps and meadows. Latvia is also densely populated by otters, beavers, lynxes and wolves, as well as large number of deer, elks, foxes and wild boars. It is an interesting place for ornithologists and other birdwatchers, especially the coastline and wetland zones during the migration periods, as well as for hunters during the official hunt periods.

    Population of Latvia
    The indigenous population of Latvia is Latvians and Fenno-Ugrian Lives (Livonians). The existing ethnic composition is the result of post-war massive migrations. The following comparison can be made – 77 % of the population were Latvians in 1935, whereas in 1989 this number had decreased to 52 %. Population was 2,248,374 in 2010, and the population dispersal is the following: 68 % live in cities and towns and 32 % – in rural areas.

    Latvian language
    Latvian is a Baltic language belonging to the Indo-European language family. The only language closely related to the Latvian language is Lithuanian. Latvian has been recognised as one of the most ancient and relatively unchanged languages in the world. It is the native language of approximately 1.5 million people.
    Russian and English are also quite common in Latvia, but German, French and Scandinavian languages are rather rare. Latvian is the only official language in Latvia; however, there are several mechanisms in place to provide people who do not know Latvian language with effective legal protection.
    The ethnic composition of Latvia is the following: 59.4 % are Latvians, 27.6 % – Russians, 3.6 % –Belarusians, 2.5 % – Ukrainians, 2.3 % – Poles, 1.3 % – Lithuanians, 3.3 % – other nationalities.

  • Illegal ImmigrationDatum05.12.2023 18:02
    Thema von BalticLegal im Forum Dies ist ein Forum in...

    Illegal immigration is travelling to or staying in a country without the approriate documents, entering at an inappropriate place or by an inappropriate method. Usually illegal immigrants try to enter a wealthier country, with a better quality of life, leaving a poorer country behind. There are three main factors which provoke illegal immigration: economic factors, criminal evasion or socio-political environment – effectively anything that can provide enough pressure such that a person is willing to break the law.

    In the imagination of many, the mind of an illegal immigrant may seem to be very devious and cunning – while this is not universally true, it is an understandable perception given the tactics that many such desperate people employ. Immigrants have devised more than 30 ways to cross borders illegally. While some try to use more traditional methods, such as presenting falsified documents at the border or crossing border on foot in the middle of a desert, others act like a true inventors. Some immigrants hide themselves inside car seats, some vault over a border fence with a pole, some even try to hide in a suitcase at the airport. According to statistics, chances for the success are very small, because countries, which are primary targets for illegal imigrants, usually conduct serious border control procedures, including constant border patrols and fence building, but these individuals are often desperate, so if there is a way through – they will find it.

    Another type of illegal immigration, which does not involve illegal border crossing, is overstaying an otherwise valid visa. In this case immigrants arrive in the host country on a legal basis, but they stay after their visa expires or perform work or other activities that might not be permitted by their visa. This method of illegal immigration requires a lot of effort, since you are forced to evade authorities who might discover your true immigration status. This means you can be scared to involve yourself in any kinds of legal action or participate in any form of legal agreement, this can limit your ability to do such simple things as bank payments, use of credit cards, legal, taxed employment etc. As a result, this approach can be very tiring and mentally exhausting. The legal consequences illegal immigrants who get caught vary from country to country. Usually the measures vary from deportation to jail terms.

    Statistics provided by the International Organization for Migration, show that almost 15% of the world's total 214 million immigrants are illegal. For the last few decades the USA has experienced one of the largest influxes of illegal immigrants in human history. The biggest problem being the US–Mexico border, which is used by many thousands of illegal immigrants each year, this in spite of all the measures taken by the US government. Currently, the number of illegal immigrants, residing in the USA, is estimated to be around 15 million people. The largest amount of illegal immigrants reside in the state of California – 2,930,000 people, which is 25% of total population of California. Technically, it means, that each fourth person you see in the street there – is an illegal immigrant! According to the data provided by the Center for Immigration Studies, 56% of illegal immigrants are from Mexico, 22% from other Latin American countries, 13% from Asia, 6% from Europe and Canada, and 3% from Africa.

    The European Union suffers from illegal immigration as well. According to data provided by the BBC, 80% of illegal immigrants pass through Grece – many of them through the border with Turkey. Lack of cooperation between Greek police, coast guard and the Turkish army (which is responsible for border control) makes this situation even worse. The majority of the rest of the illegal immigrants to the EU sneak in through the United Kingdom, entering using valid visas, but then overstaying those visas and disappearing into the general population. Currently in the UK, it is estimated. resides between 550,000 and 950,000 illegal immigrants from Africa and Asia.

    It is worth mentioning, that because of illegal immigration - legal immigrants are also made to suffer. The Constant flow of illegal immigrants and an inability to properly control it, leaves the host country no other choice, but to take measures to make its immigration policy stricter which in turm makes things harder on legal immigrants as well.

    Historical Perspective
    From a historical perspective, modern immigration started in the 18th century, accelerated by the slave trade and industrialization. At this time three main types of immigration began to appear: labour migration, refugee migration and urbanization. Because the USA gained independence in the year 1776, while in Europe imperialism was still dominant, at the beginning of 19th century many people immigrated to the USA, which was considered the land of opportunity.

    The begining of the 20th century with the fall of the large colonial empires and World War I had it's impact too, as people were immigrating from Europe, driven by the fear of war and violence. The aftermath of World War I was the fall of colonialism and establishment of the League of Nations. At this point, an influx of immigrants from the former-colonies started, which resulted in a large amount of immigrants from the newly independent countries of Africa the former colonies of France, Great Britain, Spain, and the Netherlands.

    The League of Nations failed to prevent World War II. The birth of national-socialism in central Europe in 1930s played crucial role in immigration, as many jews started migrating from Europe before the outbreak of World War II. After World War II the United Nations organization was established, which is a sentinel of peace in all the world since then. The roots of the European Union also date back to the late 1940s, when the Paris Treaty was signed.

    Since then – the principle of freedom of movement have developped quickly. The newly established Schengen area in Europe allowed the citizens of its member states to move free without any border controls. The United Nations and many countries ratified treaties on freedom of movement and provision of asylum for refugees. However, for the last three decades governments have become very concerned with the problems of terrorism, people trafficing and the drug trade. Therefore, many countries had to reduce the simplicity in their immigration policies in order to improve their homeland security.

  • Latvian banking systemDatum12.05.2023 17:26
    Thema von BalticLegal im Forum Dies ist ein Forum in...

    As of 1 January, the Latvian banking system is a part of the Eurosystem, therefore the principles of Eurosystem apply.

    In order to achieve the price stability objective, the Eurosystem uses a set of monetary policy instruments and procedures. The strategy targets the level of money market interest rates required to maintain price stability in the medium term, while the operational principles outline the means of achieving the particular interest rate level by applying the available monetary policy instruments and procedures. The ECB steers the short-term money market rates by its decisions regarding the key ECB interest rates which reflect the monetary policy stance of the ECB and affect the free liquidity on the money market.

    Based on the available information about the latest economic developments, the ECB has to evaluate their implications for future risks to price stability. The monetary policy strategy pursued by the ECB in analysis of the macroeconomic developments is based on two pillars.

    The first pillar includes an analysis of many economic and financial variables with potential short-term or medium-term price stability implications.
    The second pillar includes an analysis of monetary aggregates pointing to the leading role of money supply in maintaining price stability and focusing on a longer-term perspective.
    Both Eurosystem's strategy pillars are designated to ensure a deep analysis of the monetary, economic and financial developments in the whole euro area. This detailed analysis enables the ECB to set the key ECB rates at a level best suited to promote the overall euro area price stability.

  • Thema von BalticLegal im Forum Dies ist ein Forum in...

    According to the World Bank Group, Latvia is among the top 25 countries where it is easiest to do business. Latvia's performance in starting a business is similar to that of the Netherlands, Ireland and Sweden, all highly respected jurisdictions with developed economic and business environments.

    Procedure for setting up a business
    On average, opening a company in Latvia requires 4 procedures. Here, the word "procedure" refers to an interaction with a relevant government agency or other institution, be it a business register or a bank to open a corporate bank account in Latvia. Although the exact number of procedures may change depending on the circumstances, in general these are:

    Preparation and certification of all necessary documents
    Opening a Latvian corporate bank account
    Company registration and registration for taxes
    Registration of employees for state social security
    It is worth noting that some of these procedures, e.g. Registration for state social security, can be completed online. However, the Latvian company registration procedure is not a so-called “one-stop shop”. This means that opening a company in Latvia requires interaction with several different institutions and it is not possible to register everything in one place.

    Time required to start a business
    How long it takes to incorporate a company in Latvia depends on which country you open the company in. Opening a Latvian company from Latvia takes about 6 business days on average. If you are incorporating a company from other European countries or Central Asia countries, it may take up to 10 business days. For countries classified by the OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) as high-income countries - around 8 business days.

    The longest procedure is usually company registration and registration for taxes, it takes about 60% of the total time required to set up a company in Latvia. The preparation of the documents and the opening of a bank account each take about 20% of the total time. Enrolling workers for National Social Security is an online process, so the time required is negligible as enrollment is done on-site.

    Company density
    While store density does not directly affect store opening procedures, it is a reliable indicator of the process. The more companies there are in the country, the easier it is to start a business, although this does not necessarily mean that a small number of companies means more difficult procedures. As of 2016, there are about 14,000 new companies that have only recently registered. This roughly corresponds to a number of newly founded companies in Estonia or Denmark. However, measured by the number of businesses per 1000 working-age inhabitants, Latvia is one of the most active countries in Europe. Currently (2016) there are about 10.6 businesses per 1000 working-age population, which is more than in Germany, France, Italy and many other European countries, only after the UK.

  • Commercial Register of EstoniaDatum18.02.2023 15:33
    Thema von BalticLegal im Forum Dies ist ein Forum in...

    Center for Registers and Information Systems (RIK)

    RIK is a government agency that reports to the Ministry of Justice.
    The main purpose of RIK is to ensure an innovative and integrated environment of e-services for more efficient implementation of public administration and application of laws and jurisprudence. RIK is one of the largest IT organizations in Estonia.

    It develops and manages various registers and information systems. This includes the commercial register, e-notary, land register and information systems from other areas (court information system, e-files, etc.). Around 50 registers are under the supervision of the RIK.

    The Commercial Register of Estonia (a place for the registration of companies in Estonia) has been in operation since September 1, 1995.
    The portal of the Estonian Business Register is considered unique in Europe as it ensures quick and convenient establishment of companies. For example, it is possible to register a limited liability company in just a few hours with an ID card, without leaving home. In addition to the company search, the company portal can also be used to change a company's registration data and transmit annual reports electronically.

    The Commercial Register of Estonia offers the following services.
    Business Registration Portal (CReP - Online site for business formation in Estonia)

    It is a portal for entrepreneurs, with the help of which the registration departments of courts as well as the Central Commercial Register can be contacted, so that it can carry out various tasks in this portal.
    In this portal, entrepreneurs can submit an application for membership, a list of the board members with their personal details and relevant changes, contact details, information about relevant changes and annual reports.
    Residents of Estonia can access the portal using an ID card, Mobile ID or authentication through an Internet bank.
    Residents of Portugal, Finland and Belgium can access the portal by using an ID card, but citizens of Lithuania - by using a Mobile ID.
    Information system - the central commercial register
    It is an online service of the Center for Registers and Information Systems and this register is based on the database of the courts' register departments.
    This central database includes digital data from the commercial register, the register of non-profit associations and foundations and the commercial register of liens. It is a paid service with a monthly subscription fee of 10 EUR plus the request fee.
    By paying the subscription fee, an individual can access the information contained in the land registry, the commercial registry, the registry of non-profit associations and foundations, and the commercial pledge registry.
    A value-added tax (VAT) payment is added to the service fee. For their part, users of the Trade Register can search for information about their affiliated companies, non-governmental organizations and foundations free of charge.
    To access this information, a user must authorize themselves with an ID card.

  • Workforce in LatviaDatum18.11.2022 15:15
    Thema von BalticLegal im Forum Dies ist ein Forum in...

    The labor force of Latvia is 1,271,040 people, about 64% of the total population. This includes anyone between the ages of 15 and 64. Of these, 61%, i.e. 775,334 people, are employed. Total unemployment in Latvia is 9.5%.

    Education and skills
    Primary education is a general requirement (both social and professional) for the Latvian workforce, which is why the primary education rate is 98%. The Latvian primary education system consists of 4 grades of primary education, 5 years of lower/incomplete primary education and 3 grades of either primary education or vocational/technical education. About 40% choose to enroll in a vocational/technical institution and receive basic vocational/technical education. The other 60% opt for a normal primary education. Vocational/specialized primary education is available in cities with a developed specialized industry, e.g. Railway industry jobs in Daugavpils, a major railway junction between the EU and Russia.

    Higher education is not a general requirement for the Latvian workforce, but is required to engage in specialized, skill-based and academic jobs. Higher education is achieved by 21% of Latvians. It is offered by 58 universities and vocational training institutions. Of the total working-age population, 40% have a high level of technical or academic skills, while 87% have intermediate qualifications.

    Wages
    The minimum wage in Latvia is EUR 370/month before taxes (gross salary). According to various estimates, the average gross salary is around EUR 800/month. The Latvian Central Statistical Office estimates the average gross salary at EUR 818/month. Statistics show that starting in 2012, average wages in Latvia will increase by about 3-7% every year.

    Net salary generally accounts for about 55% of gross salary. That is, 45% of gross wages are paid by the employer as taxes, and the employee receives 55% of their wages “on paper”. This also means that a minimum wage of EUR 370 costs the employer EUR 457.64 and earns the employee EUR 272.24. However, these calculations do not take into account variables such as tax credits for dependents in the worker's family. For each family member supported, the assessment basis is reduced by EUR 175 (2016), e.g. The minimum wage of EUR 370 now generates EUR 312.49 for the worker who has 1 dependent, EUR 331.15 for 2 dependents, etc. To learn more about how wage taxes work in Latvia, please read this article on the Corporate Taxation in Latvia.

    Working time
    Latvian legislation provides for different types of working hours: normal working time, reduced normal working time, part-time work, shift work, night work and combined working time. A reduced working time is the one that is shorter than the standard working week. Day and night shifts and the summarized work schedule can be applied when the work process cannot be stopped or the rule schedule cannot be enforced. In any case, the working time must be mentioned in the employment contract and the working time should be calculated and documented by the employer.

    Normal working hours in Latvia are 8 hours a day and 40 hours a week. The usual working week is Monday to Friday, but this is not mandatory as some companies, such as B. Shops are also open on Saturdays and Sundays. The total working hours cannot exceed 160 in 4 weeks - this allows for shifts of over 8 hours a day and 40 hours a week while ensuring that employees are not overworked.

    Overtime
    Overtime is permitted under Latvian law, but must comply with the following principles. First of all, this must be agreed in writing between the employee and the employer. The agreement should include the amount of overtime and remuneration. According to the Labor Code, the number of overtime hours cannot exceed 144 hours in 4 months. In addition, Section 68 of the law stipulates that the employer must pay at least 100% of the regular hourly, weekly or piecework wage for overtime.

    It should be noted that if an employee works more than contractually agreed but on a reduced schedule, such additional work does not count as overtime work. Nevertheless, in this case, the employee is entitled to claim compensation for more work, but the amount of compensation is not regulated by law.

  • Human resources in LatviaDatum23.10.2022 12:38
    Thema von BalticLegal im Forum Dies ist ein Forum in...

    As in any country, Latvia's human resources are defined by its population. The total population of Latvia is approximately 1 986 000 people. Of them, the working-age population, ie people aged 15-64, accounts for about 64% - 1 271 040 people. About 14% are children under the age of 15 – 278 040 people. The rest of them, 22%, are retired or pensioners - 436 920.

    The unemployment rate in Latvia is around 9.5% (2016). This means that out of 1,271,040 people, 90.5% are working - 1,150,291 people. These are the same people who could be considered the consumers with the greatest purchasing potential. 120 749 people (this 9.5% of the unemployed) are potential workers or workers. The under-15s are potential workers (looking ahead) but unlikely consumers. In Latvia, state pensions are not high, making pensioners more likely to be potential customers and an unlikely labor force.

    Languages
    The official language of Latvia is Latvian, so all official documents (e.g. when founding a company) must be submitted in Latvian. Most contracts are also signed in Latvian, although certified translations are often available when dealing with foreign clients or partners. Latvian is also a primary language for transactions and marketing.

    Another important language is Russian, due to the historical connections between Latvia and Russia. Although it is not recognized as a minority language and is not used officially (e.g. on most price tags), it is recommended to use Russian as an adjunct to Latvian advertising, as the Russian-speaking population accounts for about 39% of the total population - a significant number of Customers.

    Public holidays
    Latvia has 14 public holidays, two of which always fall on Sundays and are not deducted from the working week. This number of public holidays is roughly in line with the European average, and due to the common culture they are also mostly the same: Christmas Eve, Midsummer, Easter, etc. As in other European countries, Latvian customers tend to make a lot of purchases before the public holidays, especially before more traditional public holidays like the midsummer festival.

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